47 Differences Between Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes

47 Differences Between Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes

S.N.

Character

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

1.

Term Origin

Greek for “primitive

nucleus”

Greek

for “true nucleus”

2.

Definition

Organisms made up of cell(s) that lack a cell nucleus or any membrane-encased organelles.

Organisms made up of cells that possess a membrane-bound nucleus as well as membrane-bound organelles.

3.

Major groups

Bacteria, Archae, and Bluegreen algae

Algae, fungi, protozoa, plants, animals

4.

Origin

Around 3.5 billion years ago.

Around 2 billion years ago.

5.

Size (approximate)

0.5-3.0 μm

>5 μm

6.

Cell Type

Usually unicellular (some cyanobacteria may be multicellular)

Usually multicellular

7.

Complexity

Simple

Complex organization.

8.

Nucleus Location

Free in the cytoplasm, attached to mesosomes

Contained in membrane bound structure

9.

Nucleur membrane

No nuclear membrane.

Classic membrane present.

10.

Nucleolus

Absent

Present

11.

Chromosome number

One

More than one

12.

Chromosome shape

Circular

Linear

13.

Genes

Expressed in groups called operons.

Expressed individually

14.

Genome

DNA haploid genome

DNA diploid genome

15.

DNA base ratio (G+C %)

28-73

About 40

16.

DNA wrapping on proteins

Multiple proteins act together to fold and condense prokaryotic DNA. Folded DNA is then organized into a variety of conformations that are supercoiled and wound around tetramers of the HU protein.

Eukaryotes wrap their DNA around proteins called histones.

17.

Genome nature

Efficient and compact with little repetitive DNA.

With large amounts of non-coding repetitive DNA.

18.

Membrane-bound organelles

Absent

Present

19.

Ribosomes (sedimentation coefficient)

70S (50S + 30S).Smaller.

80S (60S + 40S). Larger.

20.

Ribosome’s location

Free in cytoplasm or bound

to cell membrane

Attached to rough endoplasmic


 

reticulum

21.

Mitochondria

Absent

Present

22.

Golgi bodies

Absent

Present

23.

Endoplasmic reticulum

Absent

Present

24.

Mesosomes

Present. Performs the function of Golgi bodies and mitochondria and also help in the separation of chromosome during cell division.

Absent

25.

Lysosomes

Absent

Present

26.

Peroxisomes

Absent

Present

27.

Chloroplasts

 

Absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm

Present (in plants)

28.

Fimbriae

Prokaryotes may have pili and fimbriae (appendage that can be found on many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria).

Absent

29.

Microtubules

Absent or rare

Present

30.

Centrosome

Absent

Present except in flowering plants.

31.

Cytoskeleton

May be absent

Present

32.

Glycocalyx

Present

Only in some

33.

Cytoplasmic streaming

Absent

Present

34.

Cytoplasmic membrane

Does not contain sterols (except Mycoplasma)

Contains sterols

35.

Cell wall

Complex structure containing protein, lipids, and peptidoglycans

Present for plant cells and fungi; otherwise absent

36.

Muramic acid

Present

Absent

37.

Movement

Simple flagellum, if present

Complex flagellum, if present

38.

Respiration

Via cytoplasmic membrane

Via mitochondria

39.

Energy production site

Electron transport chain located in the cell

membrane

Within membrane bound

mitochondria

40.

Metabolic rate

Higher due to larger surface area to volume ratio

Comparatively slow

41.

Reproduction

Asexual (binary fission)

Sexual and asexual/ Mitotic division

42.

Generation time

Shorter

Comparatively longer

43.

Genetic Recombination

Partial, unidirectional transfer

Meiosis and fusion of gametes

44.

Zygote

Merozygotic (partially diploid)

Diploid

45.

Extrachromosomal

DNA

Plasmid

Inside the

mitochondria

46.

DNA replication

Occurs in cytoplasm.

Occurs in the nucleus.

47.

Transcription and translation

Occurs simultaneously.

Transcription occurs in nucleus and then translation occurs in cytoplasm.

S.N.

Character

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

1.

Term Origin

Greek for “primitive

nucleus”

Greek

for “true nucleus”

2.

Definition

Organisms made up of cell(s) that lack a cell nucleus or any membrane-encased organelles.

Organisms made up of cells that possess a membrane-bound nucleus as well as membrane-bound organelles.

3.

Major groups

Bacteria, Archae, and Bluegreen algae

Algae, fungi, protozoa, plants, animals

4.

Origin

Around 3.5 billion years ago.

Around 2 billion years ago.

5.

Size (approximate)

0.5-3.0 μm

>5 μm

6.

Cell Type

Usually unicellular (some cyanobacteria may be multicellular)

Usually multicellular

7.

Complexity

Simple

Complex organization.

8.

Nucleus Location

Free in the cytoplasm, attached to mesosomes

Contained in membrane bound structure

9.

Nucleur membrane

No nuclear membrane.

Classic membrane present.

10.

Nucleolus

Absent

Present

11.

Chromosome number

One

More than one

12.

Chromosome shape

Circular

Linear

13.

Genes

Expressed in groups called operons.

Expressed individually

14.

Genome

DNA haploid genome

DNA diploid genome

15.

DNA base ratio (G+C %)

28-73

About 40

16.

DNA wrapping on proteins

Multiple proteins act together to fold and condense prokaryotic DNA. Folded DNA is then organized into a variety of conformations that are supercoiled and wound around tetramers of the HU protein.

Eukaryotes wrap their DNA around proteins called histones.

17.

Genome nature

Efficient and compact with little repetitive DNA.

With large amounts of non-coding repetitive DNA.

18.

Membrane-bound organelles

Absent

Present

19.

Ribosomes (sedimentation coefficient)

70S (50S + 30S).Smaller.

80S (60S + 40S). Larger.

20.

Ribosome’s location

Free in cytoplasm or bound

to cell membrane

Attached to rough endoplasmic


 

reticulum

21.

Mitochondria

Absent

Present

22.

Golgi bodies

Absent

Present

23.

Endoplasmic reticulum

Absent

Present

24.

Mesosomes

Present. Performs the function of Golgi bodies and mitochondria and also help in the separation of chromosome during cell division.

Absent

25.

Lysosomes

Absent

Present

26.

Peroxisomes

Absent

Present

27.

Chloroplasts

 

Absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm

Present (in plants)

28.

Fimbriae

Prokaryotes may have pili and fimbriae (appendage that can be found on many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria).

Absent

29.

Microtubules

Absent or rare

Present

30.

Centrosome

Absent

Present except in flowering plants.

31.

Cytoskeleton

May be absent

Present

32.

Glycocalyx

Present

Only in some

33.

Cytoplasmic streaming

Absent

Present

34.

Cytoplasmic membrane

Does not contain sterols (except Mycoplasma)

Contains sterols

35.

Cell wall

Complex structure containing protein, lipids, and peptidoglycans

Present for plant cells and fungi; otherwise absent

36.

Muramic acid

Present

Absent

37.

Movement

Simple flagellum, if present

Complex flagellum, if present

38.

Respiration

Via cytoplasmic membrane

Via mitochondria

39.

Energy production site

Electron transport chain located in the cell

membrane

Within membrane bound

mitochondria

40.

Metabolic rate

Higher due to larger surface area to volume ratio

Comparatively slow

41.

Reproduction

Asexual (binary fission)

Sexual and asexual/ Mitotic division

42.

Generation time

Shorter

Comparatively longer

43.

Genetic Recombination

Partial, unidirectional transfer

Meiosis and fusion of gametes

44.

Zygote

Merozygotic (partially diploid)

Diploid

45.

Extrachromosomal

DNA

Plasmid

Inside the

mitochondria

46.

DNA replication

Occurs in cytoplasm.

Occurs in the nucleus.

47.

Transcription and translation

Occurs simultaneously.

Transcription occurs in nucleus and then translation occurs in cytoplasm.

 

© Copyright 2019 Kéndrika Academy. All right reserved.
Designed and Developed By WRIGLECS